Main Content

Ray tracing propagation model

Ray tracing models compute propagation paths using 3-D environment geometry [1][2] . Represent a ray tracing model by
using a `RayTracing`

object.

Ray tracing models:

Are valid from 100 MHz to 100 GHz.

Compute multiple propagation paths. Other propagation models compute only single propagation paths.

Support both 3-D outdoor and indoor environments.

Determine the path loss and phase shift of each ray using electromagnetic analysis, including tracing the horizontal and vertical polarizations of a signal through the propagation path. The path loss includes free-space loss and reflection losses. For each reflection, the model calculates losses on the horizontal and vertical polarizations by using the Fresnel equation, the incident angle, and the relative permittivity and conductivity of the surface material [3][4] at the specified frequency.

You can create ray tracing models that use either the shooting and bouncing rays (SBR) method or the image method.

Create a `RayTracing`

object by using the `propagationModel`

function.

[1] Yun, Zhengqing, and Magdy F. Iskander. “Ray Tracing for Radio Propagation Modeling: Principles and Applications.” *IEEE Access* 3 (2015): 1089–1100. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2453991.

[2] Schaubach, K.R., N.J. Davis, and T.S. Rappaport. “A Ray Tracing Method for Predicting Path Loss and Delay Spread in Microcellular Environments.” In *[1992 Proceedings] Vehicular Technology Society 42nd VTS Conference - Frontiers of Technology*, 932–35. Denver, CO, USA: IEEE, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1109/VETEC.1992.245274.

[3] International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication
Sector. *Effects of building materials and structures on radiowave propagation above
about 100MHz.* Recommendation P.2040-1. ITU-R, approved July 29, 2015.
https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-P.2040-1-201507-I/en.

[4] International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication
Sector. *Electrical characteristics of the surface of the Earth*.
Recommendation P.527-5. ITU-R, approved August 14, 2019.
https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-P.527-5-201908-I/en.

[5] International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector. *Propagation by diffraction*. Recommendation P.526-15. ITU-R, approved October 21, 2019. https://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-P.526-15-201910-I/en.

[6] Keller, Joseph B. “Geometrical Theory of Diffraction.” *Journal of the Optical Society of America* 52, no. 2 (February 1, 1962): 116. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.52.000116.

`propagationModel`

|`raytrace`

|`coverage`

|`sigstrength`

|`buildingMaterialPermittivity`

|`earthSurfacePermittivity`