Knicks 2007 Report Card (A to Z): Steve Francis

KnickerBlogger: When Steve Francis came into the league, his All Star game earned him the nickname “Franchise.” An alliteration on his last name, but Francis hardly deserves that moniker anymore. Along those lines, maybe we can find a few words to describe the Knick guard.

Fragile or Fractious?
The first thing that comes to my head when I think of Francis’ 2007 season is the winter break he took for the month of January. Depending on what you believe either Francis was tending to his knee tendinitis, he quit on the team, or the team asked him to go home. Whatever the reason truly was, Francis missed nearly half the season, which hurts his value.

Last year on the court, Francis had two major strengths. The first was his ability to get to the free throw line and convert. He was second on the team in free throw attempts per minute and third in TS%. Francis was best among the Knick guards in both categories. The second was his rebounding ability. Francis was second among Knick guards in per-minute rebounding, just behind Mardy Collins. This speaks well of Francis’ rebounding, since he gives up 3 inches to the taller Collins. At 6-3, Francis seemed willing to throw himself into the fray on both ends of the court.

No longer a top notch scorer, Francis has dropped nearly 6 points per 40 minutes from his career peak. Therefore his flaws were less tolerable. Francis fractured the Knick offense with his dominance of the ball. He dribbled frantically eating time off the clock, and lost the ball much too often for a guard. His 3.2 TO/40 was right along with stone handed defensive minded big men like Jerome James (3.4 TO/40) and Malik Rose (3.2 TO/40). Ironically this rate is among the best of his career, probably due to his decrease shot attempts which also hit a career low.

KnickerBlogger’s Grade: D+

2008 Outlook:
Francis was traded to Portland in the Zach Randolph deal. It’s unknown at this time whether or not he’ll actually play for them. If Portland does buy him out, who knows where he’ll land.

Dave Crockett: Francis was the most vexing Knick for me personally, though reasonable fans are welcome to disagree. Knickerblogger mentions Francis’ ability to get to the line as one of the best on the team. He was actually 2nd in the league in FTA per 100 FGAs at 51. His 57% TS% was actually a career high–on a career low usage rate. I’d also add that Francis is a quality rebounder at guard–not Jason Kidd quality, but still quite good.

Unfortunately, with Stevie Frequent-Crossover, you get a lot of cloud with that silver lining. Mind you, I do not consider him a selfish player, and his career assist rate of 22.7 (which he topped this season) strongly suggests that he is not. Rather, his particular limitations make him an especially poor fit on this team–a far better fit for say, the Clippers. He’s perfect on isolation plays as a primary offensive option, but a lot of his assists come off his own scoring as opposed to setting up his teammates. He’s a notoriously poor decision-maker on the fastbreak, where he gets a lot of FTAs but frequently won’t pass to teammates for wide open layups. Additionally, he’s a turnover machine. His 06-07 turnover rate (14.2) was ghastly, which should come as no surprise since he’s been almost as turnover-prone as Eddy Curry throughout his career, and just about as bad a defender. I’m not sure I could say that Francis has earned a D. His strengths are so clear-cut but his negatives are magnified on this team. Also, given the team’s willingness to banish Penny Hardaway I’m inclined to give Francis the benefit of the doubt about his month off. Some of his “attitude problems” he’s either outgrown or have been exaggerated. Other than the typical quips about playing time I think he’s been a fairly solid citizen in New York. I think Francis could be a nice fit for a number of teams, just not at his current price. [Ed’s note: this was written before the trade – good foresight Dave!.] If the Knicks could find a taker for his gargantuan contract he’s probably a goner–and better off for it. However, I do not expect Daddy Warbucks to buy Francis out this summer.

Michael Zannettis: In the end, Francis sitting out games was one of the best things he did for the Knicks. That way he neither took away minutes from younger players, nor spent a lot of time proving to teams that he’s not as good as either he used to be, or we all thought he used to be. On that note, I wonder how much Portland plans to play him. Between Webster, Roy, Outlaw, Jack, and Rodriguez, that’s a lot of young backcourt talent that shouldn’t be shelved when the Blazer’s goal this season is to develop, not compete.

Brian Cronin: Francis is one of the best examples of how individual statistics in the NBA are difficult to integrate into the overall game, as someone like Francis can produce very respectable statistical numbers, but at the same time, not fit in with the rest of the team well at all. That’s where scouting becomes so important.

In any event, I probably would give him a D+, but yeah, this was not a good season for Francis.

What’s interesting to me to note is exactly where will Francis end up this season if Portland does, indeed, end up cutting him.

Cleveland showed interest in him last year, but I think that would be a terrible fit.

As would Miami (another team looking for a point guard).

Houston would have been interesting, but then they picked up Mike James. How about Detroit? Indiana, maybe? Milwaukee if Mo Williams doesn’t resign?

I think those three teams would probably be the best matches I can think of – Detroit/Indiana/Milwaukee.

Any team I’m missing?

Liked it? Take a second to support Mike Kurylo on Patreon!

Mike Kurylo

Mike Kurylo is the founder and editor of His book on the 2012 Knicks, "We’ll Always Have Linsanity," is on sale now. Follow him on twitter (@KnickerBlogger).

39 thoughts to “Knicks 2007 Report Card (A to Z): Steve Francis”

  1. This has nothing to with Francis, except maybe, “speaking of guys we hate, let’s talk about someone who Knicks fans love!”

    The best news of the day (summer?) is the NYPost and ESPN reporting that Isaiah is unwilling to include David Lee in a deal for Rashard Lewis. Apparently our GM has some grasp of DL’s value.

    He’ll probably make the trade tomorrow and make a sucker out of me.

    I know it’s a longshot, but if Seattle is backed in a corner, maybe they would trade Lewis for not much – say, our expiring contracts, Balkman or Robinson plus another contract to make the #s match – Crawford or Rose or Q or Jeffries.

    If not, no big loss. There are cheaper options to provide shooting, though personally I’m hoping that Nate takes the role – would love to see him play a bigger part.

    As for Stevie, I think New Orleans would be a good fit. Maybe Golden State or Dallas.

  2. Steve Francis, statistically, was the best guard on the Knicks this year. By the end of the year, he had every reason to be pissed off about playing behind Jamal Crawford. But that behavior was unwarranted at the beginning of the year, given that Craw played fairly well in 05-06.

    As ugly as it was to watch, Francis did play well this season. The single most important fact. His TS% was MORE THAN FIVE POINTS HIGHER than Crawford’s. He also outrebounded him handily, and had more assists, steals, and blocks. He trailed by a lot in personal fouls and by a small amount in turnovers, but overall he clearly had much better statistics, despite not being silky and smooth. He was also the best three point shooter on the team, by percentage, and had the third best on court/off court according to 82games. His +3.0 was much better than Crawford’s 0.6.

    I think you have to take Francis’ on court performance as your starting point. I would give him a B in that department. His WOW rating shows he was actually the only above average guard on the roster. From there you have to deduct for his poor behaviour. But given how poorly Crawford played after being given the starting nod, I can’t fault Francis too much for his theatrics. He turned out be right. I would dock him two grades for misbeviour, (this is the NBA we are talking about after all), and another grade for his ridiculous salary, and arrive at a final grade of a C.

  3. Brian,

    Your point about “fit” is very well made and well taken. Interestingly though, I also initially dismissed Francis as a fit for Cleveland. But after thinking about it further, he could be just what the doctor ordered for them. It’s an admittedly odd pairing at first blush but if you think about it, what Francis does well is exactly what Cleveland needs.

    More than *anything* Cleveland needs an efficient scorer to pair with LeBron. Even more to the point, Cleveland runs that brutal to watch “three crossovers and a cloud of dust” style Francis excels at. What they lack is another guy to make that kind of offense effective, namely a guy that gets to the line late in games and converts. Francis’ major offensive weakness, which fundamentally is decision-making that results in turnovers, is the major challenge for any team that signs him.

    The most interesting aspect of a Cleveland/Francis pairing is that while most teams that may be interested would likely see him as a bench player Cleveland could best use him as a starter. They could best limit his usage to reasonable levels by starting him with LeBron thus limiting his decision-making.

    I doubt Ferry makes this move for “attitude” reasons. I suspect that he’d see signing Francis as similar to when the Spurs signed Stephen Jackson, who played well but was a bit of a headache. But given that the market for Francis is probably going to be limited it might be precisely the kind of low-cost move that could really pay off.

  4. Owen, this seems to be an example of when stats used blindly really blur the true effect and value of a player. Francis, when with the team, was limited in the minutes he could play, especially back-to-backs. At least some of his lack of court time should be attributed to his knee issues. Looking at the game logs show a number of games he didn’t even play even after Crawford went down for the year.

    It would seem silly for any team to go into next year expecting a full year of production like he produced in limited minutes. Additionally, one should not expect any struggles for Crawford this year in light of his comeback from injury (Has David Lee’s high ankle sprain healed yet?).

    Lastly, it seems his poor defense doesn’t show up in the stats, but on a team with a number of poor defenders, he seemed to stand out in the backcourt as being the worst. His lateral quickness really hampered his game.

  5. I meant that it is foolish not to anticipate some struggles or setbacks for a returning injured player (as a general manager or coach) in this case Crawford.

  6. Owen, you’re setting the bar waaaaay too low if the main argument is that Stevie was/is better than Jamal Crawford.

    Also, while it’s important to read the box score stats, they don’t say much about defense, and last year he was just abominable. Mostly, I’d guess, through lack of effort, since he didn’t use to be a bad defender. jb is right that his matador style stood out – hard to do, on this team.

    I do think he’d be a good low-cost pickup for someone, but I wouldn’t offer much – personality issues aside, you’re talking about a guard in his 30s, already on the decline and coming off an injury, whose effectiveness is totally based on athleticism, getting to the line and rebounding.

  7. Why would Seattle trade Rashard for nothing but expiring contracts ? when they could just let rashard walk and get the same effect.

  8. Yes, but the offer I proposed earlier, on the other thread, was essentially Robinson for Lewis, with contracts thrown in so the salaries match. By including the expiring deals, Seattle wouldn’t take as big a salary hit.

    Our offer would be:
    1. Robinson (or Chandler & Morris, or even Balkman if they insist)
    2. The expiring deals of Jones & Dickau
    3. Another contract or two to make it work. Anyone Seattle wants except David Lee. In reality, they’d choose from among Crawford, Q, Jeffries and Rose.

  9. p.s. the advantage to Seattle is getting the young player(s). In reality, other teams would probably offer better young players, but why not give it a shot?

  10. TheInfamous/Caleb – I am not setting the bar. KB set the bar by giving Craw a C-. Bottom line, the Knicks were better off with Franchise on the court than off. And these grades are for performance this year, not next. I am not erecting a shrine here (still busy working on DLee’s). I just think its a bit of an injustice, given his obviously superior numbers, to give Stevie a lower grade than Crawford.

  11. I think Francis will end up w/the LA Clippers in a platoon role w/fellow aging/injury-prone PG Sam “I am” Cassell.

    And he gets to play with his BFF, Cuttino Mobley, once again.

    Regarding Francis,

    his numbers may be “better” than Crawford’s, but what was the team’s record when Francis played 30+ minutes? What were Curry’s (or Lee’s or Marbury’s or whoever’s stats) stats when playing w/Francis as opposed to w/o him.

    (OK I’m too lazy to go to 82 games and go digging for the relevant data)

    Because in the end, the only stat that matters is wins and losses.

  12. I am not sure record is really a good way to look at it. But Francis was 6-12 in games in which he played 30 minutes FWIW.

    I think adjusted +/- is what you are looking for, and they don’t have that on 82games for 06-07.

  13. Ken – I think the Knicks were 14-13 when David Lee played more than 30 minutes.

    Lot pf fun actually looking at his stats. They actually lost in his best performance, 107-105 to the Bucks. He was 9-12 with 14 rebounds and no turnovers in 36 minutes. When will Eddy Curry ever have a game like that?

  14. As far as Steve Francis’ knees/aging. It’s obviously got to be a concern to other teams, but I think he’ll miraculously recover when given a bigger role.
    To me, his attitude would be more of a concern. Even in the Stevie Franchise days he never won much. His refusal to take a backseat on the Knicks (rightly or wrongly, and maybe his knees really were hurt) even when they were contending for the playoffs paints the picture of someone who’s not really ideal for the role of veteran role playing combo guard, possilbly off the bench, on a title contender, or even a playoff contender.

  15. When Crawford went down, the WOW had an interesting post. His conclusion was the the Knicks were better off without Crawford as long as Lee wasn’t seriously hurt and Balkman got a lot more playing time as a result. Obviously that didn’t happen.

    I dont think records mean much. Francis was 4-9 in games he started in the last 20 games of the season, games in which Lee, Balkman, and Richardson didnt play very much or at all.

  16. So, my question to the board is:
    How important is Jared Jefferies to the Knicks plans.
    He’s came billed as a versatile defender on the perimeter. They type of guy that can guard a 2, 3 or 4. If this is true, wouldn’t he be our three, with Richardson the starter at the two, rotating with Crawford?

  17. Francis stank as a Knick. They never should have traded for him. Now that he’s gone let’s pretend he was never here.

  18. If QRich could play the 2 guard for regular minutes, I’d be all for starting him and having Crawford come off the bench. But QRich shouldn’t be running around chasing shooters like Rip Hamilton and Ray Allen

    (Anyone else amused by the fact that the Celtics now have shooting guards named Ray Allen AND Allan Ray? Or is it just me? Ok, it’s just me.)

    Not with his back woes. He’s much better as a physical, undersized 3 guarding LeBron, Pierce, etc.

    Jeffries is a serious wildcard. I remember watching the one preseason game he played before he hurt his wrist and he looked very solid. He’s also been working out at IMG in S. Florida this summer (w/Balkman), trying to hone his jumper.

    Two years ago, QRich looked like an utter bust. Last year he was very solid (before his injury of course). Perhaps Jeffries can have a similar turnaround.

  19. Francis was dreadful last season. any stat that says otherwise should make you question the stat itself.

    I don’t think it should necessarily make you question the stat itself (I was always irked when folks would use that exact argument to counter “Derek Jeter is not a good defender” – “Well, any stat that says he isn’t a good defender has got to be a bad stat”), I just think that there are times when stats simply must be accompanied by traditional scouting to get an accurate feel.

    I know Hollinger would never suggest that we just blindly accept PER as the end all/be all, but to just combine it with traditional scouting to see what the deal is (someone doing so with Jeter would notice that the stats correlated well to the scouting regarding his poor defense – the man just can’t go to his left).

    And in Francis’ case, while his stats were pretty good, traditional scouting would not be very kind to him at all, as his particular style of play did not mesh with the rest of the Knicks at all.

  20. I think Jefferies is key for the Knicks.
    If he comes back sharp and plays the boards and D tough, the Knicks’ interior and perimeter defense would improve markedly.
    It’s no surprise that interior D suffers when the guards and small forward break down on the perimeter.
    You get a guy with some wings and good feet, it keeps people honest.
    He also was good at getting others focused on D, based on the stories I read at about the time when he finally played during the regular season. Strong floor communicator.
    That would be a big help to Curry and Randolph.
    With Jefferies and Q on the floor at the same time, you now have two credible perimeter defenders.
    Crawford is a matador. I think Marbury improved some last year, but that was more Isiah PR than anything else. As Marbury’s body broke down his D worsened.
    One other thing, I like having Dickau and/or Jones. If there is a guy that would benefit from a blow during the game, it’s Marbury. He needs someone to play a solid, turnover-free 10 minutes or so. He’s not that young, and his legs are starting to show wear.
    If he is fresh, his D will sharpen.

  21. It looks like a long shot that the Knicks will be able to follow up the Randolph trade with another A-lister, so, barring cuts and minor trading, this may be the team we go with this year. I have said my points on why I don’t like the Randolph trade, have accepted it, and am ready to move forward, I guess with the goal of making the playoffs, and once in, going as deep as possible.

    Marbury improved on D a lot this year. He said the new front line will make him average 11 pts, 12 ass., 7 rebs.. Less focus on his offense should keep him fresh on the other end.

    In so many of the first 60 games last year the Knicks were right there at the end to win it. They came up a point or two short too often. Randolph may help this (as the team may not experience as many long droughts in the 3rd quarter that made them need to climbing back at the end), but so also would very minor improvements from the players we already had.

    Jeffries, I agree, is key. If he plays the way he was supposed to play when he signed, he could put the team over.

    Unfortunately, I can’t believe the prognosis for Q can be that good. If our hopes depend on him being healthy all year, we are putting way to many eggs into an uninsured contract.

    The Knicks are definitely better today than they were last week. They are good enough to make the playoffs. But I thought they were at the beginning of each of the last three seasons too. Hopefully, for every step up from one of the young guys, someone else doesn’t step back.

  22. Well, Francis is unpopular. He is gone too, so I won’t bother defending him. It’s just wierd to me that Mardy Collins is given a C, Jamal Crawford a C=, and Francis a D+. Collins had a PER of 9.14 for crying out loud! :-)

    You know I am stuck when I cite PER….

  23. I don’t really think Ariza was any big deal to lose, but I’m sure someone will come up with a stat where he’s better than Shaq (and it might not be FT%)

    I always thought that Francis would be good with two good knees and, to give him credit, he was pretty good, at times, with one.

    He was way more similar, in playing style, to Marbury than Zach is to Eddy.

    I thought that we should hang on to him. That there was no rush and that anything he gave us would be gravy and then we could flip his expiring deal for, let’s say, a Zach Randoph. It happenned sooner than I expected.

    I liked Francis when he was at Maryland. Too bad it didn’t work out in NY.

  24. Owen – the grade isn’t entirely based on performance. There’s a level of expectation as well. In other words, pretend Collins is taking NBA 101, while Francis is taking 400 level classes.

  25. “I don?t really think Ariza was any big deal to lose, but I?m sure someone will come up with a stat where he?s better than Shaq (and it might not be FT%)”

    They both shot 56.7% TS% so maybe next year Ariza will surpass him.

    But seriously Ariza had a PER of 16.7 last year. That’s not bad for a 21 year old. I have his top 10 comparables as:

    Nene Hilario
    Derrick McKey
    Al Harrington
    Chris Wilcox
    Chucky Brown
    Josh Childress
    Gary Trent
    Richard Jefferson
    Jared Jeffries

    Not a bad list.

  26. He wasn’t all bad. At least he wasn’t a stuck up jerk to the coaching staff like Starbury.

  27. “I know Hollinger would never suggest that we just blindly accept PER as the end all/be all, but to just combine it with traditional scouting to see what the deal is (someone doing so with Jeter would notice that the stats correlated well to the scouting regarding his poor defense – the man just can?t go to his left).”

    I think this is my main gripe with WOW. From my perspective, they tout their system as absolute. Correct me if I’m wrong, but I think at one point WOW said their stat accounts for 95% of a player’s value. That seems to be a bit over the top, at least with how stats are currently collected. There’s a lot going on in an NBA game that isn’t in the box scores. Individual defense is the big one, but you can consider a half dozen other things that aren’t in the box scores (help defense, charges, double teams, etc.) That seems to make up more than 5% to me.

    I like the work put into WOW, and the idea behind the calculations. Personally I just feel as if I’m being oversold on the product. I view WOW like I view PER, it’s just another number that captures a percentage of a player’s contributions, but should be taken with a grain of salt.

  28. Once Dickau and Jones are waived. I just noticed that Brevin Knight was waived. He would be a solid upgrade of our backup PG play.

  29. I’ll be the court jester for a minute. Did anyone see the post that said Jared “Lights Out” Jefferies is practicing on his stroke daily with Renaldo “Swish” Balkman. I sure hope the Knicks sent down a shooting coach because both can’t shoot at all. I praying Isiah gave each player some guidance and the Knicks overpaid players are fit and ready to game. MSG should do a reality show on each player so we can cite their lack of effort in the offseason on their shitty 82 games. Sorry to be the cynic – but I worry about each one of their work ethics. I’d say about half our guys are eating cheetos, smoking pot right now. I hope I’m wrong. But that’s the way it looks like when they get their asses beat all over the court. The talents there – let’s see some hustle.

  30. KB – Vis a vis the 95% number.

    Point differential, i.e. the net of offensive and defensive efficiency, explains 95% of team wins. If you know how many points a team scored and allowed per game, you can estimate how many games they won with 95% accuracy. That was Oliver and Hollinger.

    What they did at the team level, Berri does with individual stats. And he has found that just by looking at the box score statistics he can explain team wins with the same high 95% level of accuracy. He can look at a team’s box score and estimate its wins very closely. This suggests that box score statistics actually are a very credible tool for analyzing basketball and explaining why taams win games. Berri concludes the following in his “A Defense of Box Score Statistics” post.

    “All of this leads me to what may seem ? in some circles ? to a bold statement. I think the box score statistics tracked for players in the NBA are more valuable than the box score statistics tracked for baseball players (which I don?t think anyone has suggested we abandon). As we note in The Wages of Wins, basketball players are more consistent than baseball or football players across time. To illustrate, there is about a 0.6 correlation between a baseball player?s OPS in the current season and what the player did last season. For basketball players, though, Win Score per minute has a 0.8 correlation from season-to-season. In other words, the box score statistics in the NBA have greater predictive power than the box score statistics tracked in baseball.”

    I have debated the WOW extensively on other boards with a lot of people who haven’t read the book. I was unsuccessful. Here too. At this point I am not really trying to do it anymore, or to oversell it. I am just trying to add his perspective on top of everything else, because I think its interesting and helpful, especially to a Knicks fan.

    I think his work makes it a lot easier to understand why the Knicks have been so bad for so long. And I honestly agree with his suggestions for what we ought to do to get better – i.e. play Lee, Richardson, and Balkman, get rid of Curry. His approach really seems to make a lot more sense than anything Isaiah has done or unfortunately is likely to do.

  31. helped win one game, lost more than a couple… D+ is generous. “… Now that he?s gone let?s pretend he was never here. “

  32. Owen – the grade isn?t entirely based on performance. There?s a level of expectation as well. In other words, pretend Collins is taking NBA 101, while Francis is taking 400 level classes.


    Like what we said about Collins at the time, if a veteran put up numbers like Collins, he wouldn’t even BE in the league.

  33. “It?s just wierd to me that Mardy Collins is given a C, Jamal Crawford a C-, and Francis a D+.” -Owen

    I may have missed it, but did KB offer a grade for the Knicks as a team? If so, I’d have to assume it was somewhere between a D and a C-.

    That said, the average grades of the players would have to result in the team grade. Figure James’ F washes out Lee’s A. Everybody else then gets graded against the curve. Certainly Francis isn’t going to be graded higher than the team overall. He was a pariah who his own GM who traded for him months earlier regreted having on the team.

    Francis being on the team at all gets an F. He didn’t play well enough to justify any part of the trade. He came in with an F, he should leave with an F (along with his the dude that brought him here).

  34. Owen, if you don’t want to debate this here, let me know (via email) and we can do it offline.

    As for the 95%, I believe we’re talking about Oliver’s 4 factors, which is actually 8 factors if you’re separating offense and defense. What box score stats is WOW using to measure defense on an individual level? If it’s just defensive rebounds, blocks, and steals, then there’s a big problem with how WOW assigns defensive credit because shooting (eFG%) is the most important of all the factors.

    Again, no need to discuss it here. You can find my email address easily and we can take it offline. If it bears fruit, I’m willing to publish some of the ideas/concepts here.

  35. Francis did some things well, especially get to the free throw line and shoot 90% there. He was able to get in the paint and get to the line at will. And he didnt turn the ball over that much. But his outside shooting was mediocre at best and he doesnt even make an effort to play defense. That plus the atrocious attitude and salary means “dont let the door hit you on the way out fella”. buh-bye.

  36. “Francis did some things well, especially get to the free throw line and shoot 90% there.”


    “And he didnt turn the ball over that much.”

    Tied for 3rd worst on the team.

    “But his outside shooting was mediocre at best.”

    Tied for 2nd best in 3 point shooting%.

  37. Thanks for the statistical breakdown. Sorry i didnt look up the stats before posting something based on my present sense recollection of watching him play this season.

    Suffice it to say, he was 90% FT for most of the season (or close to it). Ill amend by saying “he got to the line alot and shot well from the stripe”. Better?

    Since guards handle the ball much more than others (especially PGs)being tied for 3rd worst on the team means nothing. Steve Nash led the Suns in turnovers. Meaningless stat. Leonardo Barbosa was 4th. A more valid point might be that Francis turned the ball over on a per minute basis more than any other player (which could refute my statement) but instead you pointed out that he was “tied for 3rd worst on the team”.

    He shot 40% from the field, which is by anyone’s standards incredibly mediocre. Who cares if he is tied for 2nd in 3 pt shooting? the whole team shot mediocre from 3.

    If you are going to criticize using stats, at least back them up with something that makes sense.

    So okay, he turned the ball over more than I realized on a per minute basis.

    Thanks for helping me conclude that Francis was awful and good riddance.

    We agree on that right?

Comments are closed.